Difficulty reading words in isolation;
Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words;
Difficulty with oral reading (slow, inaccurate, or labored);
Segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness);
Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds;
Holding information about sounds and words in memory (phonological memory);
Rapidly recalling the names of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet (rapid naming).
Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension;
Variable difficulty with aspects of written language;
Limited vocabulary growth do to reduced reading experiences.